Exam Info and Objectives

The CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI certification exams (LX0-103 and LX0-104) [also referred to as LPIC-1 exams 101-400 and 102-400] test a candidate’s foundational knowledge of the Linux system. Each exam is 90 minutes in length and there is a mix of 60 single-response, multiple-response, and fill-in-the-blank type questions. During the exams, candidates do not have access to the Internet, a running Linux system, an electronic gadget, or to printed and electronic documentation, and they are not allowed to talk to other candidates taking the exam. Visit https://certification.comptia.org/certifications/linux or http://www.lpi.org/our-certifications/lpic-1-overview for up-to-date and in-depth information and exam policies.

The official exam objectives are grouped in 10 major categories (or topics)—4 for LX0-103/101-400 and 6 for LX0-104/102-400. Each major topic also indicates a percentage of its coverage. These 10 major topics and their percentages are:

LX0-103/101-400

Topic 101: System architecture 14%

Topic 102: Linux installation and package management 18%

Topic 103: GNU and Unix commands 43%

Topic 104: Devices, Linux File Systems, and Filesystem Hierarchy Standard 25%

Total: 100%

LX0-104/102-400

Topic 105: Shells, Scripting, and Data Management 17%

Topic 106: User Interfaces and Desktops  8%

Topic 107: Administrative Tasks 20%

Topic 108: Essential System Services 17%

Topic 109: Networking Fundamentals 23%

Topic 110: Security 15%

Total: 100%

Each major topic is divided into multiple sub-topics (or exam objectives). There are a total of 86 objectives for LX0-103/101-400 and 75 for LX0-104/102-400. Each objective provides a description, lists the knowledge areas, and highlights the files, key terms, and commands that are included in it.

Each objective has a “weight” associated with it, which designates the number of questions to expect on the exam from that objective. For instance, objective 101.1 with weight 2 implies that you expect to see 2 questions on the exam covering knowledge areas 1 to 8 and the listed files, terms, and utilities.

Based on the above explanation, here is the number of questions from each topic that you should expect to see on the certification exams:

LX0-103/101-400 % ?s

Topic 101: System architecture 14%  8

Topic 102: Linux installation and package management 18% 11

Topic 103: GNU and Unix commands 43% 26

Topic 104: Devices, Linux File Systems, and Filesystem Hierarchy Standard 25% 15

Total: 100% 60


LX0-104/102-400 % ?s

Topic 105: Shells, Scripting, and Data Management 17% 10

Topic 106: User Interfaces and Desktops  8%  4

Topic 107: Administrative Tasks 20% 12

Topic 108: Essential System Services 17% 11

Topic 109: Networking Fundamentals 23% 14

Topic 110: Security 15%  9

Total: 100% 60

For convenience, I have enumerated “key knowledge areas” under exam objectives and highlighted the chapter(s) where you can find them. I have also provided a description alongside each objective for assistance in locating them in the book. If an objective spans multiple chapters, apposite references are furnished. This information is furnished at the beginning of each chapter as well.

I have also summarized the exam objectives, chapters you can find them, associated weights, the number of questions to expect on the exam, and other useful information in a tabular format under “Summary of Exam Objectives and Relevant Details” following the detailed list of the exam objectives. This summary contains most of the information that I have already described here; however, the intent is to provide a quick and convenient reference.

 

LX0-103/101-400 Exam Objectives

Topic 101: System Architecture (14%)

101.1 Determine and configure hardware settings (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to determine and configure fundamental system hardware.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Enable and disable integrated peripherals

  2. Configure systems with or without external peripherals such as keyboards

  3. Differentiate between the various types of mass storage devices

  4. Know the differences between coldplug and hotplug devices

  5. Determine hardware resources for devices

  6. Tools and utilities to list various hardware information (e.g. lsusb, lspci, etc.)

  7. Tools and utilities to manipulate USB devices

  8. Conceptual understanding of sysfs, udev, dbus

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /sys, /proc, /dev, modprobe, lsmod, lspci, lsusb

101.2 Boot the system (weight 3)

Candidates should be able to guide the system through the booting process.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Provide common commands to the bootloader and options to the kernel at boot time

  2. Demonstrate knowledge of the boot sequence from BIOS to boot completion

  3. Understanding of SysVinit and systemd

  4. Awareness of Upstart

  5. Check boot events in the log files

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: dmesg, BIOS, bootloader, kernel, initramfs, init, SysVinit, system

101.3 Change runlevels / boot targets and shutdown or reboot system (weight 3)

Candidates should be able to manage the SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target of the system. This objective includes changing to single user mode, shutdown or rebooting the system. Candidates should be able to alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets and properly terminate processes. This objective also includes setting the default SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target. It also includes awareness of Upstart as an alternative to SysVinit or systemd.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Set the default runlevel or boot target

  2. Change between runlevels / boot targets including single user mode

  3. Shutdown and reboot from the command line

  4. Alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets or other major system events

  5. Properly terminate processes

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /etc/inittab, shutdown, init, /etc/init.d, telinit, system, systemctl, /etc/systemd/, /usr/lib/system/, wall

Topic 102: Linux Installation and Package Management (18%)

102.1 Design hard disk layout (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to design a disk partitioning scheme for a Linux system.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Allocate filesystems and swap space to separate partitions or disks

  2. Tailor the design to the intended use of the system

  3. Ensure the /boot partition conforms to the hardware architecture requirements for booting

  4. Knowledge of basic features of LVM

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /(root) filesystem, /var filesystem, /home filesystem, /boot filesystem, swap space, mount points, partitions

102.2 Install a boot manager (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to select, install and configure a boot manager.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Providing alternative boot locations and backup boot options

  2. Install and configure a bootloader such as GRUB Legacy

  3. Perform basic configuration changes for GRUB 2

  4. Interact with the bootloader

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: menu.lst, grub.cfg and grub.conf; grub-install, grub-mkconfig, MBR

102.3 Manage shared libraries (weight 1)

Candidates should be able to determine the shared libraries that executable programs depend on and install them when necessary.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Identify shared libraries

  2. Identify the typical locations of system libraries

  3. Load shared libraries

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: ldd, ldconfig, /etc/ld.so.conf, LD_LIBRARY_PATH

102.4 Use Debian package management (weight 3)

Candidates should be able to perform package management using the Debian package tools.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Install, upgrade and uninstall Debian binary packages

  2. Find packages containing specific files or libraries which may or may not be installed

  3. Obtain package information like version, content, dependencies, package integrity and installation status (whether or not the package is installed)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /etc/apt/sources.list, dpkg, dpkg-reconfigure, apt-get, apt-cache, aptitude

102.5 Use RPM and YUM package management (weight 3)

Candidates should be able to perform package management using RPM and YUM tools.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Install, re-install, upgrade and remove packages using RPM and YUM

  2. Obtain information on RPM packages such as version, status, dependencies, integrity and signatures

  3. Determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes from

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: rpm, rpm2cpio, /etc/yum.conf, /etc/yum.repos.d/, yum, yumdownloader

Topic 103: GNU and Unix Commands (43%)

103.1 Work on the command line (weight 4)

Candidates should be able to interact with shells and commands using the command line. The objective assumes the Bash shell.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Use single shell commands and one line command sequences to perform basic tasks on the command line [chapter 1]

  2. Use and modify the shell environment including defining, referencing and exporting environment variables [chapter 4]

  3. Use and edit command history [chapter 4]

  4. Invoke commands inside and outside the defined path [chapter 4]

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: [chapter 1: pwd, man, and uname], [chapter 4: bash, echo, env, export, set, unset, history, and .bash_history]

103.2 Process text streams using filters (weight 3)

Candidates should be able to apply filters to text streams.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Send text files and output streams through text utility filters to modify the output using standard UNIX commands found in the GNU textutils package

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: [chapter 2: head, tail, and less], [chapter 3: cat, cut, expand, fmt, od, join, nl, paste, pr, sed, sort, split, tr, unexpand, uniq, and wc]

103.3 Perform basic file management (weight 4)

Candidates should be able to use the basic Linux commands to manage files and directories.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Copy, move and remove files and directories individually [chapter 2]

  2. Copy multiple files and directories recursively [chapter 2]

  3. Remove files and directories recursively [chapter 2]

  4. Use simple and advanced wildcard specifications in commands [chapter 4]

  5. Using find to locate and act on files based on type, size, or time [chapter 2]

  6. Usage of tar, cpio and dd [chapters 1 and 8]

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: [chapter 1: tar, cpio, gzip, gunzip, bzip2, xz], [chapter 2: cp, find, mkdir, mv, ls, rm, rmdir, touch, file], [chapter 4: file globbing], [chapter 8: dd]

103.4 Use streams, pipes and redirects (weight 4)

Candidates should be able to redirect streams and connect them in order to efficiently process textual data. Tasks include redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error, piping the output of one command to the input of another command, using the output of one command as arguments to another command and sending output to both stdout and a file.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error [chapter 4]

  2. Pipe the output of one command to the input of another command [chapter 4]

  3. Use the output of one command as arguments to another command [chapter 2]

  4. Send output to both stdout and a file [chapter 4]

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: [chapter 2: xargs] and [chapter 4: tee]

103.5 Create, monitor and kill processes (weight 4)

Candidates should be able to perform basic process management.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Run jobs in the foreground and background

  2. Signal a program to continue running after logout

  3. Monitor active processes

  4. Select and sort processes for display

  5. Send signals to processes

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: [chapter 1: uptime], [chapter 4: &, bg, fg, jobs, kill, nohup, ps, top, pgrep, pkill, killall, screen], and [chapter 8: free]

103.6 Modify process execution priorities (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to manage process execution priorities.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Know the default priority of a job that is created

  2. Run a program with higher or lower priority than the default

  3. Change the priority of a running process

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: nice, ps, renice, top

103.7 Search text files using regular expressions (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to manipulate files and text data using regular expressions. This objective includes creating simple regular expressions containing several notational elements. It also includes using regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Create simple regular expressions containing several notational elements

  2. Use regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: grep, egrep, fgrep, sed, regex(7)

103.8 Perform basic file editing operations using vi (weight 3)

Candidates should be able to edit text files using vi. This objective includes vi navigation, basic vi modes, inserting, editing, deleting, copying and finding text.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Navigate a document using vi

  2. Use basic vi modes

  3. Insert, edit, delete, copy and find text

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: vi, /, ?, h, j, k, l, i, o, a, c, d, p, y, dd, yy, ZZ, :w!, :q!, :e!

Topic 104: Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (25%)

104.1 Create partitions and filesystems (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to configure disk partitions and then create filesystems on media such as hard disks. This includes the handling of swap partitions.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Manage MBR partition tables

  2. Use various mkfs commands to create various filesystems such as ext2/ext3/ext4, XFS, VFAT

  3. Awareness of ReiserFS and Btrfs

  4. Basic knowledge of gdisk and parted with GPT

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: fdisk, gdisk, parted, mkfs, mkswap

104.2 Maintain the integrity of filesystems (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to maintain a standard filesystem, as well as the extra data associated with a journaling filesystem.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Verify the integrity of filesystems

  2. Monitor free space and inodes

  3. Repair simple filesystem problems

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: du, df, fsck, e2fsck, mke2fs, debugfs, dumpe2fs, tune2fs, xfs tools (such as xfs_metadump and xfs_info)

104.3 Control mounting and unmounting of filesystems (weight 3)

Candidates should be able to configure the mounting of a filesystem.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Manually mount and unmount filesystems

  2. Configure filesystem mounting on bootup

  3. Configure user mountable removable filesystems

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /etc/fstab, /media, mount, umount

104.4 Manage disk quotas (weight 1)

Candidates should be able to manage disk quotas for users.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Set up a disk quota for a filesystem

  2. Edit, check and generate user quota reports

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: quota, edquota, repquota, quotaon

104.5 Manage file permissions and ownership (weight 3)

Candidates should be able to control file access through the proper use of permissions and ownerships.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Manage access permissions on regular and special files as well as directories

  2. Use access modes such as suid, sgid and the sticky bit to maintain security

  3. Know how to change the file creation mask

  4. Use the group field to grant file access to group members

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: chmod, umask, chown, chgrp

104.6 Create and change hard and symbolic links (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to create and manage hard and symbolic links to a file.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Create links

  2. Identify hard and/or soft links

  3. Copying versus linking files

  4. Use links to support system administration tasks

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: ln, ls

104.7 Find system files and place files in the correct location (weight 2)

Candidates should be thoroughly familiar with the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), including typical file locations and directory classifications.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Understand the correct locations of files under the FHS

  2. Find files and commands on a Linux system

  3. Know the location and purpose of important file and directories as defined in the FHS

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: find, locate, updated, whereis, which, type, /etc/updated.conf

LX0-104/102-400 Exam Objectives

Topic 105: Shells, Scripting and Data Management (17%)

105.1 Customize and use the shell environment (weight 4)

Candidates should be able to customize shell environments to meet users’ needs. Candidates should be able to modify global and user profiles.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Set environment variables (e.g. PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell [chapter 10]

  2. Write Bash functions for frequently used sequences of commands [chapter 9]

  3. Maintain skeleton directories for new user accounts [chapter 10]

  4. Set command search path with the proper directory [chapter 10]

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: [chapter 10: source, /etc/bash.bashrc, /etc/profile, ~/.bash_profile, ~/.bash_login, ~/.profile, ~/.bashrc, ~/.bash_logout], [chapter 4: env, export, set, and unset, alias, and lists], and [chapter 9: function]

105.2 Customize or write simple scripts (weight 4)

Candidates should be able to customize existing scripts, or write simple new Bash scripts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Use standard sh syntax (loops, tests) [chapter 9]

  2. Use command substitution [chapter 9]

  3. Test return values for success or failure or other information provided by a command [chapter 9]

  4. Perform conditional mailing to the superuser [chapter 15]

  5. Correctly select the script interpreter through the shebang (#!) line [chapter 9]

  6. Manage the location, ownership, execution and suid-rights of scripts [chapter 9]

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: [chapter 9: for, while, test, if, read, seq, exec]

105.3 SQL data management (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to query databases and manipulate data using basic SQL commands. This objective includes performing queries involving joining of 2 tables and/or subselects.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Use of basic SQL commands

  2. Perform basic data manipulation

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: insert, update, select, delete, from, where, group by, order by, join

Topic 106: User Interfaces and Desktops (8%)

106.1 Install and configure X11 (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to install and configure X11.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Verify that the video card and monitor are supported by an X server

  2. Awareness of the X font server

  3. Basic understanding and knowledge of the X Window configuration file

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /etc/X11/xorg/xorg.conf, xhost, DISPLAY, xwininfo, xdpyinfo, X

106.2 Setup a display manager (weight 1)

Candidates should be able to describe the basic features and configuration of the LightDM display manager. This objective covers awareness of the display managers XDM (X Display Manger), GDM (Gnome Display Manager) and KDM (KDE Display Manager).

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Basic configuration of LightDM

  2. Turn the display manager on or off

  3. Change the display manager greeting

  4. Awareness of XDM, KDM and GDM

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: lightdm, /etc/lightdm

106.3 Accessibility (weight 1)

Demonstrate knowledge and awareness of accessibility technologies.

Key Knowledge Areas:


  1. Basic knowledge of keyboard accessibility settings (AccessX)

  2. Basic knowledge of visual settings and themes

  3. Basic knowledge of assistive technology (ATs)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: Sticky/repeat keys, mouse keys, high contrast/large print desktop themes, screen reader, braille display, screen magnifier, on-screen keyboard, gestures (used at login, for example gdm), orca, GOK, emacspeak

Topic 107: Administrative Tasks (20%)

107.1 Manage user and group accounts and related system files (weight 5)

Candidates should be able to add, remove, suspend and change user accounts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Add, modify and remove users and groups

  2. Manage user/group info in password/group databases

  3. Create and manage special purpose and limited accounts

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow, /etc/group, /etc/skel, chage, getent, groupadd, groupdel, groupmod, passwd, useradd, userdel, usermod

107.2 Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs (weight 4)

Candidates should be able to use cron or anacron to run jobs at regular intervals and to use at to run jobs at a specific time.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Manage cron and at jobs

  2. Configure user access to cron and at services

  3. Configure anacron

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /etc/cron.{d,daily,hourly,monthly,weekly}, /etc/at.deny, /etc/at.allow, /etc/crontab, /etc/cron.allow, /etc/cron.deny, /var/spool/cron/*, crontab, at, atq, atrm, anacron, /etc/anacrontab

107.3 Localisation and internationalization (weight 3)

Candidates should be able to localize a system in a different language than English. As well, an understanding of why LANG=C is useful when scripting.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Configure locale settings and environment variables

  2. Configure timezone settings and environment variables

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /etc/timezone, /etc/localtime, /usr/share/zoneinfo, environment variables (LC_*, LC_ALL, LANG, TZ), /usr/bin/locale, tzselect, tzconfig, date, iconv, UTF-8, ISO-8859, ASCII, unicode

Topic 108: Essential System Services (17%)

108.1 Maintain system time (weight 3)

Candidates should be able to properly maintain the system time and synchronize the clock via NTP.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Set the system date and time

  2. Set the hardware clock to the correct time in UTC

  3. Configure the correct timezone

  4. Basic NTP configuration

  5. Knowledge of using the pool.ntp.org service

  6. Awareness of the ntpq command

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /usr/share/zoneinfo, /etc/timezone, /etc/localtime, /etc/ntp.conf, date, hwclock, ntpd, ntpdate, pool.ntp.org

108.2 System logging (weight 3)

Candidates should be able to configure the syslog daemon. This objective also includes configuring the logging daemon to send log output to a central log server or accept log output as a central log server. Use of the systemd journal subsystem is covered. Also, awareness of rsyslog and syslog-ng as alternative logging systems is included.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Configuration of the syslog daemon

  2. Understanding of standard facilities, priorities and actions

  3. Configuration of logrotate

  4. Awareness of rsyslog and syslog-ng

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: syslog.conf, syslogd, klogd, /var/log/, logger, logrotate, /etc/logrotate.conf, /etc/logrotate.d/, journalctl, /etc/systemd/journald.conf, /var/log/journal

108.3 Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) basics (weight 3)

Candidates should be aware of the commonly available MTA programs and be able to perform basic forward and alias configuration on a client host. Other configuration files are not covered.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Create e-mail aliases

  2. Configure e-mail forwarding

  3. Knowledge of commonly available MTA programs (postfix, sendmail, qmail, exim) (no configuration)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: ~/.forward, sendmail emulation layer commands, newaliases, mail, mailq, postfix, sendmail, exim, qmail

108.4 Manage printers and printing (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to manage print queues and user print jobs using CUPS and the LPD compatibility interface.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Basic CUPS configuration (for local and remote printers)

  2. Manage user print queues

  3. Troubleshoot general printing problems

  4. Add and remove jobs from configured printer queues

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities; /etc/cups, lpd legacy interface (lpr, lprm, lpq)

Topic 109: Networking Fundamentals (23%)

109.1 Fundamentals of internet protocols (weight 4)

Candidates should demonstrate a proper understanding of TCP/IP network fundamentals.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Demonstrate an understanding of network masks and CIDR notation

  2. Knowledge of the differences between private and public “dotted quad” IP addresses

  3. Knowledge about common TCP and UDP ports and services (20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 123, 139, 143, 161, 162, 389, 443, 465, 514, 636, 993, 995)

  4. Knowledge about the differences and major features of UDP, TCP and ICMP

  5. Knowledge of the major differences between IPv4 and IPv6

  6. Knowledge of the basic features of IPv6

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /etc/services, IPv4, IPv6, subnetting, TCP, UDP, ICMP

109.2 Basic network configuration (weight 4)

Candidates should be able to view, change and verify configuration settings on client hosts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Manually and automatically configure network interfaces

  2. Basic TCP/IP host configuration

  3. Setting a default route

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: [chapter 11: /etc/hostname, /etc/hosts, ifconfig, ifup, ifdown, ip, route, ping] and [chapter 12: /etc/nsswitch.conf]

109.3 Basic network troubleshooting (weight 4)

Candidates should be able to troubleshoot networking issues on client hosts.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Manually and automatically configure network interfaces and routing tables to include adding, starting, stopping, restarting, deleting or reconfiguring network interfaces

  2. Change, view, or configure the routing table and correct an improperly set default route manually

  3. Debug problems associated with the network configuration

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: [chapter 11: ifconfig, ip, ifup, ifdown, route, hostname, netstat, ping, ping6, traceroute, traceroute6, tracepath, tracepath6, netcat] and [chapter 12: host, dig]

109.4 Configure client side DNS (weight 2)

Candidates should be able to configure DNS on a client host.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Query remote DNS servers

  2. Configure local name resolution and use remote DNS servers

  3. Modify the order in which name resolution is done

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: /etc/hosts, /etc/resolv.conf, /etc/nsswitch.conf, host, dig, getent

Topic 110: Security (15%)

110.1 Perform security administration tasks (weight 3)

Candidates should know how to review system configuration to ensure host security in accordance with local security policies.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Audit a system to find files with the suid/sgid bit set [chapter 15]

  2. Set or change user passwords and password aging information [chapter 10]

  3. Being able to use nmap and netstat to discover open ports on a system [chapter 11]

  4. Set up limits on user logins, processes and memory usage [chapter 10]

  5. Determine which users have logged in to the system or are currently logged in [chapter 10]

  6. Basic sudo configuration and usage [chapter 10]

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: [chapter 10: passwd, chage, sudo, /etc/sudoers, su, usermod, ulimit, who, w, and last], [chapter 11: nmap, netstat], and [chapter 15: find, fuser, and lsof]

110.2 Setup host security (weight 3)

Candidates should know how to set up a basic level of host security.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Awareness of shadow passwords and how they work [chapter 10]

  2. Turn off network services not in use [chapter 11]

  3. Understand the role of TCP wrappers [chapter 14]

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: , [chapter 6: /etc/inittab, /etc/init.d/*], [chapter 10: /etc/nologin, /etc/passwd, /etc/shadow], [chapter 14: /etc/hosts.allow, /etc/hosts.deny], and [chapter 11: /etc/xinetd.d/*, /etc/xinetd.conf, /etc/inetd.d/*, /etc/inetd.conf]

110.3 Securing data with encryption (weight 3)

The candidate should be able to use public key techniques to secure data and communication.

Key Knowledge Areas:

  1. Perform basic OpenSSH 2 client configuration and usage

  2. Understand the role of OpenSSH 2 server host keys

  3. Perform basic GnuPG configuration, usage and revocation

  4. Understand SSH port tunnels (including X11 tunnels)

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities: ssh, ssh-keygen, ssh-agent, ssh-add, ~/.ssh/id_rsa and id_rsa.pub, ~/.ssh/id_dsa and id_dsa.pub, /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key and ssh_host_rsa_key.pub, /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key and ssh_host_dsa_key.pub, ~/.ssh/authorized_keys, /etc/ssh_known_hosts, gpg, and ~/.gnupg/*


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